Here is how I understand it...
Absolutely the spirit ascends now to be with the LORD. Paul said to die is gain and it is to with Him. But the difference between David and Paul is Jesus death and resurrection.
David is before the resurrection and Paul is After.
Before Jesus was resurrected, the sacrifices were in place and were necessary to foretell, be a shadow of Jesus, but were never good enough to cancel out sins. After Jesus died on the cross, God was completely satisfied legally concerning the sins of the world. Just like the Israelites had to bring the bull, slit its throat and burn it on the altar which was an admission of sins and was acceptance of admitting responsibility of sins which was supposed to bring them into alignment with the LORD God Almighty. None of that was good enough to cancel out the literal sins.
Enter Jesus. The perfect Lamb who knowingly and willingly laid down His life for us. That sacrifice was perfect and acceptable to God for the canceling out of all sins: past, present and future. It satisfied the legal issue.
Then and only then could the OT saints be covered by the blood of Jesus and be justified by His blood and sanctified by His loving action.
This is what made it possible for all the OT saints to enter into heaven after Jesus rose from the dead. Am I repeating myself?? Sorry.
I know I won't change anyone's mind, so I guess I'll quit trying. I really just wanted to say that when the all the pieces fit together then there are no holes in an interpretation. The only way for there to be no holes in this one is for there to be a definite distinction between how God handled the dead before Jesus died on the cross and after He died on the cross.
There is only one story that Jesus told where he used two names: Abraham and Lazarus. Plus he tells this story more like an eye witness account rather than a teaching example. That is why I don't think the story in Luke 16 is a parable, but a real life event.
We each have an identity which is written in the Book of Life. When we die, we do not lose our identity and we are not given new names until Jesus gives it to us after the 1000 years. Just because we cannot see the spiritual world unless God reveals it to us, does not mean that the souls of men are not "recognisable entities" to each other, angels and to God.
Are you with me so far?